[googleff9f73d56b52d04d.html] Direct and Indirect Speech Example English

Monday, 25 February 2019

Direct and Indirect Speech Example English



  Direct से Indirect में बदलने के Rules


   किसी व्यक्ति द्वारा कही हुई बात को हम दो प्रकार से कह सकते हैं |

   1-(Direct Speech) वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों दोहराकर 


   वक्ता के वास्तविक शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों दोहराने के तरीके को Direct Speech या Direct Narration कहते हैं |
   Example :
   Rahul Said, "Sohan is reading a book."

   2-(Indirect Speech) वक्ता के शब्दों को अपने शब्दों में कहकर 


   वक्ता के वास्तविक शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों न कहकर उसके भाव को अपने शब्दों में प्रकट करने के तरीके को Indirect speech या Indirect Narration कहते हैं |

   Example :

   Rahul Said that Sohan was reading a book.

  Points to remember 


   Reporting Speech  


   Direct speech का first part REPORTING SPEECH कहलाता है |

   Reported Speech 


   Direct speech का second part जो inverted commas के अन्दर बन्द होता है REPORTED SPEECH कहलाता है |



   Reporting Verb


   Reporting Speech की verb को RREPORTING VERB कहते हैं |

   Reported Verb


   Reported Speech की Verb को REPORTED VERB कहा जाता है |
   Direct Speech वक्ता के कथन को Inverted Commas ("   ") के अन्दर लिखते हैं |
   Direct Speech में Inverted Commas ("   ") के अन्दर के पहले शब्द का पहला अक्षर सदैव Capital letter में    लिखा जाता है |

   Indirect Speech में Inverted commas ("   ") का use नहीं होता है |
   Direct से Indirect बनाते समय Verbs, Pronouns और समय तथा स्थान बताने वाले शब्दों में change किया जाता है |




Direct से Indirect में Change करने का तरीका 


Direct से Indirect में change करने के rules जानने से पहले यह जान लेना चाहिए कि Sentence कितने प्रकार के होते हैं |

  1. Sentence चार प्रकार के होते हैं |
  2. Assertive निश्चित बात कहने वाले 
  3. Interrogative प्रश्नवाचक 
  4. Imperative आग्या व सलाह सूचक
  5. Exclamatory विस्मयाबोधक 

1.  Assertive Sentences 


जब Reporting Verb Present Tense या Future Tense में हो  

1. Direct     :  Ravi says, "Shahid is flying the kite."
    Indirect   :  Ravi says that Shahid is flying the kite. 

2. Direct     :   Rahul says, "Sheela is going to school."
    Indirect  :    Rahul says that Sheela is going to school.

3. Direct.    :   The mother will say, "Her brother is a good boy."
    Indirect  :    The mother will say that her brother is a good boy."


Rule 1 : Reporting Verb यदि Present Tense या Future Tense में हो Reported Speech के Verb में Change नहीं होता है |
Rule 2  : Indirect Speech में  that का use करते हैं |

Note :

अगर say, says, will say के बाद to और उसका object ना हो तो इन शब्दों को as it is रहने देते हैं tell या tells आदि का use नहीं करते हैं | (ऊपर के तीनों sentences देखये)
Agar Reporting Verb mein say to, says to, will say to etc. ka use ho toh aise sentences ko indirect banane mein tell, tells, will tell aadi ka use karte hain
Tell transitive verb hai (transitive verb ka matlab hai iske saath iska Object bhi hona chahiye)

Example :

1.  Direct    :  The mother says to us, "Sita is a good girl." 
     Indirect :  The mother tells us that Sita is a good girl.

2.  Direct    :  They say to Hari, "Delhi is a big city."
     Indirect  :  They tell Hari that Delhi is a big city.

3.  Direct.   :   The teacher will say to the students, " Jawaharlal Nehru was the prime minister of India."
      Indirect :   The teacher will tell the students that Jawaharlal Nehru was the prime minister of India.

जब Reporting Verb Past Tense में हो 

जब Reporting Verb Past Tense में हो तो  Reported Speech की Verb को इस प्रकार Change करते हैं |
Present Indefinite Tense को Past Indefinite Tense में Change करते हैं |

Example :

1.  Direct.  :  Hari said, "The boys play on the road."
     Indirect.:  Hari said that the boys played on the road.

2.  Direct.   :  Gopal said, "He takes bath on the bank of the river."
     Indirect. :  Gopal said that he took bath on the bank of the river."

3.  Direct.   :   The teacher said to me,"Ten boys play cricket,"
     Indirect  :   The teacher told me that ten boys played cricket,"

said को as it is रहने देते हैं |
said to को told में chang कर देते हैं |

Present Continuous को Past Continuous में change करते हैं |

Example :  

1.  Direct.    :  Rama said,"The mother is cooking the food."
     Indirect. :  Rama said that the mother was cooking the food.

2.  Direct.    :  A boy said to his brother,"Banti and Babli are playing cricket."
     Indirect. :  A boy told his brother that Banti and Babli were playing cricket."

Present Perfect को Past Perfect में change करते हैं |

Example :

1.  Direct.    :  Shahid said to me,"Gori has written a letter."
     Indirect  :  Shahid told me that Gori had written a letter."

2.  Direct.    :  The teacher said to him, "Some boys have not gone out."
     Indirect.  :  The teacher told him that some boys had not gone out.

Present Perfect Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में change करते हैं |

Example :

1.  Direct.    :  Mukesh said to us,"Kumar has been playing cricket for two hours."
     Indirect. :  Mukesh told us that Kumar had been playing cricket for two hours.

2.  Direct.    :  Raina said to the principal,"Three students have been bathing in the river since morning."
     Indirect. :  Raina told the principal that three students had been bathing in the river since morning.

Past Indefinite को Past Perfect में change करते हैं |


Example :

1.  Direct.   :  Ravi said to me,"She wrote a letter."
     Indirect. :  Ravi told me that she had written letter.

2.  Direct.   :   Radha said to the teacher ,"Sita completed her homework."
     Indirect  :  Radha told the teacher that Sita completed her homework.  

Past Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में change करते हैं |

Example :

1.  Direct.   :  Ravi said to Rohan, "Mira was playing cricket in the street."
     Indirect. :  Ravi told Rohan that Mira had been playing cricket in the street.

2.  Direct.   :  The post man said to him,"Two brothers were quarelling in the post office."
     Indirect  :  The post man told him that two brothers had been quarelling in the post office.

Past Perfect को ज्यों का त्यों रहने देते हैं |

Example :

1.  Direct.    :  Pankaj said to Hira,"The monkey had run from the roof."
     Indirect.  :  Pankaj told Hira that the monkey had run from the roof.

2.  Direct.    :  Rahul said,"All boys had gone to city."
     Indirect.  :  Rahul said that all boys had gone to city.

Past Perfect Continuous को ज्यों का त्यों रहने देते हैं |

Example :

1.  Direct.    :  Abdul said to Ravi, "Kishan had been playing cricket since morning."
     Indirect  :  Abdul told Ravi that Kishan had been playing cricket since morning.

2.  Direct.    :  Motu said to Patlu, "The father had been watching movie for one hour."
     Indirect. :  Motu told patlu that the father had been watching movie for one hour."

will, shall को would, should में  change कर देते हैं |

1.  Direct.    :  Ravi said to Mira, "Rahan will not go."
     Indirect. :  Ravi told Mira that Rohan would not go.

2.  Direct.    :  I said to Mohan, "I shall be swimming in the river."
     Indirect. :  I told Mohan that I should be swimming in the river.

may को might तथा can को could में change करते हैं |

1.   Direct.   :  Rozy said to Salma, "It may rain."
      Indirect  :  Rozy told Salma that it might rain.

2.   Direct.    :  A boy said to his father, "Raju can run fast."
      Indirect.  :  A boy told his father that Raju could run fast.

Could, should, would,  ought, might और must को ज्यों का त्यों रहने देते हैं |

Axception (अपवाद) :

अगर Reported Speech हमेशा सत्य रहने वाली बात (Universal truth) या ऐतिहासिक सत्य (Historical truth) या आदत(Habitual Action) या कोई कहावत (Proverb)प्रकट करे तो इसके Tense में कोई change नहीं होता है चाहे Reporting verb Past Tense में ही क्यों न हो |

Example :

1.  Direct.    :  The said to us, "The earth moves round the sun."
     Indirect. :   The teacher told us that the earth moves round the sun.

2.  Direct.    :   My father said, "Dogs bark at strangers."
     Indirect. :   My father said that dogs bark at strangers.

3.  Direct.    :   Urmila said to Ruchi, "Two and two make four."
     Indirect. :   Urmila told Ruchi that two and two make four.

4.  Direct.    :   The teacher said to the students, "Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first president of free India."
     Indirect.  :   The teacher told the students that Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first president of free India.

Exercise : 


Change the following sentences into Indirect :
1.  He said, "Mohan is a good boy."
2.  Radha said, "A boy is writing a letter."
3.  Ravi said to Rohan, "Sohan has been playing cricket for two hours."
4.  Rajan said to me, "He played well."
5.  Raju said to his teacher, "He has done his homework properly."
6.  The post man said, "The post master could not know the mistake."
7.  The said to the students, "The sun is very hot."
8.  "The grandmother used to tell nice stories."said Rama.
9.  The father said to us, "God is great."
10."The planets move round the sun. " said the teacher.

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1 comment:

  1. Sir
    Interrupt sentences
    Imperative sentences
    Ka rules upload kar dijiye

    ReplyDelete

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