What Are Modal Auxiliaries

There are two types of verbs.

1.  Ordinay/Regular verbs,
2.  Auxiliary verbs

Auxiliary verbs are of two types

(i)  primary Auxiliary

      Be --- is, are, am, was, were

      Have --- have, has, had

      Do --- do, does, did

(ii) Modal Auxiliary

May, might, will, would, shall, should, can, could, must, ought to, need etc.

What is Modal Auxiliary ?

A verb used to express the mood (mode) or attitude of a speaker is called Modal Auxiliary.
Modal Auxiliaries express mode (mood) with main verbs. These are called Modal Auxiliaries (or Modals) because of clearing mode.

Most Commonly Used Modals

Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should, Must, Ought to, Am/Was to, Have/had to, Used to, Need, Dare

All these Modals suggest

(a) Permission
(b) Request
(c) Suggestion, Advice
(d) Possibility
(e) Duty, Obligation
(f) Prohibition
(g) Promise
(h) Necessity, Compulsion
(i)  Ability
(j)  Wish, Prayer

Different Uses of Modals

1. Can  

Can का अर्थ 'सकना' है | इसका प्रयोग योग्यता (Ability), क्षमता (Capacity), तथा आज्ञा एवं अनुमति (Permission) प्रकट करने के लिए होता है |

(A) Ability

(i) I can do it. (I am able to do it.)

(ii) She can write English well. (She is able to write English well)

(iii) She will be able to help me. (Future of Can)

(B) Capacity 

(i) I can drive a car.

(ii) I can swim in the river.

(iii) I can not help you. (I am unable to help you.)

(C) Permission/Order

(i) You can take my book.

(ii) You can go now.

(D) Prohibition/Offer

(i) You can not attend the marriage party.  (Prohibition)

(ii) Can I help you ?  (Offer)

(iii) Can I get you some money ?  (Offer)

Some more examples :

(i) Can you solve the problem ?

(ii) He is so old that he can not walk without a stick.

(iii) Can you here what your father is saying ?

(iv) The Principal can grant you concession in fees.

ऊपर वाले वाक्यों में can के प्रयोग से Ability, Capacity or Power का पता चलता है |

2. Could 

Could, can का Past tense है | इसका अर्थ है 'सका' या 'सकता था' | Could के द्वारा भूतकाल में Ability या Capacity show होती है |

(A) Ability

(i) You could write this letter yesterday.

(B) Capacity

(i) I could not reach Delhi parliament in time.

(ii) He could climb in the tree.

(C) Polite Reqest

(i) Could you please do it for me ?

(ii) Could you please give me your book ?

(क्रिप्या क्या आप मुझे अपनी किताब दे सकते हैं |)

Polite Request के लिए would का भी use किया जाता है |

Ability - योग्यता
Capability - किसी कार्य को करने की सामर्थ्य

3.  May

May और can दोनों का अर्थ 'सकना' होता है | बस difference सिर्फ इतना है कि May का प्रयोग आज्ञा देना, आज्ञा लेना, निकट संभावना, और इच्छा प्रकट करने के लिए होता है |
जबकि Can का प्रयोग Mostly Ability and Capacity को प्रकट करने के लिए होता है |

(A) Possibility 

 (i) It may rain. 

 (ii) The monkey may dance on the floor. 

 (iii) You may slip on the road. 

(B) To take permission 

 (i) May I come in sir.

 (ii) May I play in the ground. 

 (iii) May I go to my home. 

(C) To give Permission 

 (i) You may come in. 

 (ii) You may go to your home. 

 (iii) You may take this milk.

(D) Wish or Prayer

 (i)  May you live long!

 (ii) May God bless you!

(E) Possibility or Probability 

(i) His words may be false

 (ii) The train may be late. 

 (iii) It may rain today.

4. Should

It is used to express Duty/Obligation, Purpose, Condition

(A)  Duty/Obligation

(i)  You should stand by your brother.

तुम्हें अपने भाई का समर्थन करना चाहिए।

(ii) He should be present here.

उसे यहां उपस्थित होना चाहिए ।

(iii)  Promises should be kept.

वादे निभाने चाहिएं ।

 5. Should Have

Should have के द्वारा Obligation/Duty को past में express किया जाता है for example-

(i)  You should have stood by your brother.

तुम्हें अपने भाई का समर्थन करना चाहिए था।

(ii) You should have been present at the party.

तुम्हें पार्टी में उपस्थित होना चाहिए था।

6.  Must

Must का use भी चाहिए के अर्थ में होता है जहां पर किसी बात को बहुत ज़ोर देकर कहते हैं वहां चाहिए के लिए अक्सर must का use होता है।

(A) Obligation

(i) You must follow instructions.

आपको निर्देशों का पालन अवश्य करना चाहिए ।

(i)  They must not play here.

उन्हें यहां खेलना ही नहीं चाहिए।   (ज़ोर देकर)

(B)  Strong Possibility

(i) It is eleven. The doctor must be in the hospital.

ग्यारह बज रहे हैं। डॉक्टर को हॉस्पिटल में ही होना चाहिए।

7.  Must Have

Past action के लिए must के साथ have का use करते हैं।

(i)। You must have followed instructions.

तुम्हें निर्देशों का पालन अवश्य करना चाहिए था।

(i) You must have helped me.

तुम्हें मेरी सहायता ज़रूर करनी चाहिए थी।

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